Work-life balance is very essential to maintain daily life. This study's objective is to examine the influence of supervisor support, work-health balance, and career commitment on work-life balance in the manufacturing industry in Pakistan. The study's second objective is to examine the role of job stress as a mediator between supervisor support, work-health balance, career commitment, and work-life balance. A total of 255 questionnaires were distributed among the employees working in the manufacturing industry of Karachi. The employees returned 247 questionnaires that were filled by the participant in which 243 questionnaires were identified as useful. The percentage of the valid questionnaire was 95.29%. The gathered data was analyzed and delivered statistical outcomes by developed hypotheses. Tests were performed by using SPSS and PLS-SEM, statistical techniques. The results show that supervisor support, career commitment, and work-health balance have a positive relationship with work-life balance. The supervisor support, career commitment, and work-health balance have a negative relationship with job stress. Job stress mediates the relationship between supervisor support, career commitment, work-health balance, and work-life balance.
Afsar, B., Umrani, W. A., & Khan, A. (2019). The impact of perceived calling on work outcomes in a nursing context: The role of career commitment and living one’s calling. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 24(1), e12154. doi: 10.1111/jabr.12154
Althammer, S. E., Reis, D., Beek, S., Beck, L., & Michel, A. (2021). A mindfulness intervention promoting work-life balance: How segmentation preference affects changes in detachment, well‐being, and work-life balance. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. doi: 10.1111/joop.12346
Amin, S., Arshad, R., & Abdul Ghani, R. (2017). Spousal Support and Subjective Career Success: The Role of Work-Family Balance and Career Commitment as Mediator. Jurnal Pengurusan, 50, 133-142. doi: 10.17576/pengurusan-2017-50-12
Andesna Nanda, Mochamad Soelton, Sita Luiza, & Saratian, E. T. P. (2019). The Effect of Psychological Work Environment and Work Loads on Turnover Interest, Work Stress as an intervening Variable.
Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative Research Methods: A Synopsis Approach.Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 6(11), 40-47. doi: 10.12816/0040336
Aziz-Ur-Rehman, M., & Siddiqui, D. A. (2019). Relationship Between Flexible Working Arrangements and Job Satisfaction Mediated by Work-Life Balance: Evidence From Public Sector Universities’ Employees of Pakistan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 10(1), 104. doi: 10.5296/ijhrs.v10i1.15875
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology., 22, 309–328. doi: 10.1108/02683940710733115
Baral, R., & Bhargava, S. (2010). Work‐family enrichment as a mediator between organizational interventions for work‐life balance and job outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(3), 274-300. doi: 10.1108/02683941011023749
Barber, L. K., Conlin, A. L., & Santuzzi, A. M. (2019). Workplace telepressure and work-life balance outcomes: The role of work recovery experiences. Stress Health, 35(3), 350-362. doi: 10.1002/smi.2864
Bardhan, R., Heaton, K., Davis, M., Chen, P., Dickinson, D. A., & Lungu, C. T. (2019). A Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating Psychosocial Job Stress and Health Risk in Emergency Department Nurses. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(18). doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183243
Bataineh, K. a. (2019). Impact of Work-Life Balance, Happiness at Work, on Employee Performance. International Business Research, 12(2), 99. doi: 10.5539/ibr.v12n2p99
Bellmann, L., & Hübler, O. (2020). Working from home, job satisfaction, and work-life balance – robust or heterogeneous links? International Journal of Manpower, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/ijm-10-2019-0458
Caillier, J. G. (2020). The Impact of Workplace Aggression on Employee Satisfaction With Job Stress, Meaningfulness of Work, and Turnover Intentions. Public Personnel Management, 50(2), 159-182. doi: 10.1177/0091026019899976
Charoensukmongkol, P., & Phungsoonthorn, T. (2020). The effectiveness of supervisor support in lessening perceived uncertainties and emotional exhaustion of university employees during the COVID-19 crisis: the constraining role of organizational intransigence. J Gen Psychol, 1-20. doi: 10.1080/00221309.2020.1795613
Chen, J., Li, J., Cao, B., Wang, F., Luo, L., & Xu, J. (2020). Mediating effects of self-efficacy, coping, burnout, and social support between job stress and mental health among young Chinese nurses. J Adv Nurs, 76(1), 163-173. doi: 10.1111/jan.14208
Cheng-I Chu, Ming-Shinn Lee, & Hsiang-MingHsu. (2006). The Impact of Social Support and Job Stress on Public Health Nurses’ Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Rural Taiwan.
Chiang, F. F. T., Birtch, T. A., & Kwan, H. K. (2010). The moderating roles of job control and work-life balance practices on employee stress in the hotel and catering industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 25-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.04.005
Choi, E. Y., Choi, S. H., & Lee, H. (2021). The Association between Job Quality Profiles and Work-Life Balance among Female Employees in Korea: A Latent Profile Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 18(4). doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041672
Cicek, I., Karaboga, T., & Sehitoglu, Y. (2016). A New Antecedent of Career Commitment: Work to Family Positive Enhancement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 417-426. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.152
Davison, P. M., Bensch, K., & Karasek, M. A. (1980). Isolation and growth of endothelial cells from the microvessels of the newborn human foreskin in cell culture. J Invest Dermatol, 75(4), 316-321. doi: 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12530941
Deng, X., Liu, X., & Fang, R. (2020). Evaluation of the correlation between job stress and sleep quality in community nurses. Medicine (Baltimore), 99(4), e18822. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018822
Dinh, L. N. (2020). Determinants of employee engagement are mediated by work-life balance and work stress. Management Science Letters, 923-928. doi: 10.5267/j.msl.2019.10.003
Durate. (2017). Affective Commitment to Change and Work-Life Balance: Mediating Factors.
Eddy, P., Wertheim, E. H., Hale, M. W., & Wright, B. J. (2019). Trait Mindfulness Helps Explain the Relationships Between Job Stress, Physiological Reactivity, and Self-Perceived Health. J Occup Environ Med, 61(1), e12-e18. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001493
Eisapareh, K., Nazari, M., Kaveh, M. H., & Ghahremani, L. (2020). The relationship between job stress and health literacy with the quality of work life among Iranian industrial workers: The moderating role of social support. Current Psychology. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-00782-5
Eletskiy, N., Özcan, E., & Turhan, T. (2019). The effect of burnout and stress on organizational commitment: example of health workers. Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(6), 22-36.
Etikan, I. (2016). Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
Fahlevi, M. (2020). Work-Life Balance and Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Employees on Banking Companies in Jakarta.
Fiernaningsiha, N., Nimranb, U., Raharjoc, K., & Arifind, Z. (2019). The Role of Supervisory Support and Life Balance Work in Increasing Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Study at Hotel Employees in Malang.
Fontinha, R., Easton, S., & Van Laar, D. (2019). Overtime and quality of working life in academics and nonacademics: The role of perceived work-life balance. International Journal of Stress Management, 26(2), 173-183. doi: 10.1037/str0000067
Ganiyu, I. O., Derera, E., Atiku, S. O., & Fields, Z. (2020). Measuring the effectiveness of work-life balance strategies in the manufacturing sector. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18. doi: 10.4102/sajhrm.v18i0.1216
Garcia, L. C., Shanafelt, T. D., West, C. P., Sinsky, C. A., Trockel, M. T., Nedelec, L., . . . Fassiotto, M. (2020). Burnout, Depression, Career Satisfaction, and Work-Life Integration by Physician Race/Ethnicity. JAMA Netw Open, 3(8), e2012762. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12762
Giauque D., S., A.-B., & F, V. (2019). Stress and Turnover Intents in International Organizations: Social Support and Work-life balance as Resources. International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Gragnano, A., Boer, A. d., & Miglioretti, M. (2015). Work-Health Balance - A new construct to explain workers' well-being after RTW. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.4213.5769
Gragnano, A., Miglioretti, M., Frings-Dresen, M. H. W., & de Boer, A. (2017). Adjustment between work demands and health needs: Development of the Work-Health Balance Questionnaire. Rehabil Psychol, 62(3), 374-386. doi: 10.1037/rep0000121
Gragnano, A., Simbula, S., & Miglioretti, M. (2020). Work-Life Balance: Weighing the Importance of Work-Family and Work-Health Balance. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(3). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030907
Hasan, Z. u., Khan, M. I., Butt, T. H., Abid, G., & Rehman, S. (2020). The Balance between Work and Life for Subjective Well-Being: A Moderated Mediation Model. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(4), 127. doi: 10.3390/joitmc6040127
Hege, A., Lemke, M. K., Apostolopoulos, Y., Whitaker, B., & Sonmez, S. (2019). Work-Life Conflict among U.S. Long-Haul Truck Drivers: Influences of Work Organization, Perceived Job Stress, Sleep, and Organizational Support. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(6). doi: 10.3390/ijerph16060984
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. . American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524. . doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513
Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307-324. doi: 10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.117
Holland, P., Tham, T. L., Sheehan, C., & Cooper, B. (2019). The impact of perceived workload on nurse satisfaction with work-life balance and intention to leave the occupation. Appl Nurs Res, 49, 70-76. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2019.06.001
Jaharuddin, N. S., & Zainol, L. N. (2019). The Impact of Work-Life Balance on Job Engagement and Turnover Intention.
Kala Sneha, D. G. S. M. (2020). Occupational stress, burnout, and work performance of government school teachers in port blair, andaman and Nicobar islands. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology.
Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. . Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285/308.
Kaur, R., & Randhawa, G. (2020). Supportive supervisor to curtail turnover intentions: do employee engagement and work-life balance play any role? Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/ebhrm-12-2019-0118
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.
Kumar, R., & Mokashi, U. M. (2020). COVID-19 and Work-Life Balance: What about Supervisor Support and Employee Proactiveness?Annals of Contemporary Developments in Management & HR, 2(4), 1-9. doi: 10.33166/acdmhr.2020.04.001
Liw, O., & Westlund, L. (2020). Upplevelsen av Work-Life Balance hos poliser i yttre tjänst.
Najam, U., Burki, U., & Khalid, W. (2020). Does Work-Life Balance Moderate the Relationship between Career Commitment and Career Success? Evidence from an Emerging Asian Economy. Administrative Sciences, 10(4), 82. doi: 10.3390/admsci10040082
Navajas-Romero, V., Ariza-Montes, A., & Hernandez-Perlines, F. (2020). Analyzing the Job Demands-Control-Support Model in Work-Life Balance: A Study among Nurses in the European Context. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 17(8). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17082847
Page, C., & Meyer, D. (1999). The applied research design for business and management: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
PakistanBureauofStaistics. (2021). Industry.
Salem, S. F., & Salem, S. O. (2019). Effects of Social Media Marketing and Selected Marketing Constructs on Stages of Brand Loyalty. Global Business Review, 097215091983086. doi: 10.1177/0972150919830863
Samuel, M., & Okey, L. E. (2015). The relevance and significance of correlation in social science research. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, 1(3), 22-28.
SBP. (2019). Financial Statements Analysis of Companies (Non-Financial) Listed at Pakistan Stock Exchange.
Shams, K., & Kadow, A. (2019). The Relationship Between Subjective Well-Being and Work-Life Balance Among Labourers in Pakistan. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 40(4), 681-690. doi: 10.1007/s10834-019-09631-5
Soomro, Y. A. (2019). Antecedents of brand loyalty in the fashion industry of Pakistan: Moderating effect of Individual-level collectivist values. Journal of organizational Studies and Innovation, 6(9).
Stephan, U., Li, J.,& Qu, J. A fresh look at self-employment, stress, and health: accounting for self-selection, time and gender. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research.
Subramaniam, A. (2020). Job Stress, Co-Worker Support, Role Expectation Conflict and Work-Life Balance Among Working Women: A Quantitative study on Multinational Companies in Vietnam.
Talukder. (2019). Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment: The Role of Work-Family Conflict, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life Balance. Journal of Employment Counseling, 56(3), 98-116. doi: 10.1002/joec.12125
Talukder, Vickers, M., & Khan, A. (2018). Supervisor support and work-life balance. Personnel Review, 47(3), 727-744. doi: 10.1108/pr-12-2016-0314
Talukder, M. H., & Galang, M. C. (2021). supervisor support for employee performance in Australia: the mediating role of work-life balance, job, and life attitude.
Ukwadinamor, C. U., & Oduguwa, A. S. (2020). Impact of Work Overload and Work Hours on Employees Performance of Selected Manufacturing Industries in Ogun State. doi: 10.9790/487X-2211011625
Wong, K. K. K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1-32. doi: 10.17524/repec.v10i3.1376
Yang, T., Shen, Y. M., Zhu, M., Liu, Y., Deng, J., Chen, Q., & See, L. C. (2015). Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 13(1), ijerph13010072. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13010072
Yukongdi, V., & Shrestha, P. (2020). The influence of affective commitment, job satisfaction and job stress on turnover intention: A study of Nepalese bank employees. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 9, 88-98.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Kehkashan Nizam