Global Journal for Management and Administrative Sciences <p>The GJMAS is an interdisciplinary open-access double-blind peer-reviewed refereed journal published by the <a href="">Department of Public Administration, the University of Karachi</a> that publishes significant contributory researches in different fields of social sciences, business and education management. GJMAS publishes two issues per year. It has both version of ISSN. Print ISSN 2788-4821 and Online ISSN 2788-483X. GJMAS publishes original research articles related to Business Management, Human Resource Management, Leadership, Marketing Management, Psychology, Sociology, Education Management, Teacher’s Training, Education Training, MIS (Management Information System), Business Law, Marketing theory and Marketing applications, Business investment, Business finance, Public ethics, Operations management, business research, Organizational behaviour, Business and economics education, Case studies, statistics, Industrial relations, Econometric, Personnel relations, management &amp; public policy, Management organization and Innovation &amp; technology.<br />By providing easy access to the insights of Social Sciences &amp; Business Information, case studies and researches, GJMAS aims to extend and supplement the knowledge of the scholarly world.</p> en-US (Editor) (Support) Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 SUSTAINABILITY IN LIFELONG LEARNING: MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE FROM PAKISTAN <p>The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development places education and lifelong learning opportunities for all at the forefront of Sustainable Development Goal 4, thereby increasing the role of higher education institutions across the world. Higher education institutions have also significantly been impacted by technological advancements of the 21st century, necessitating the need to build resilience and respond with a sustainable approach. Conversely, studies on lifelong learning in the context of higher education institutions remain limited in Pakistan. Recognizing this fact, this study intends to examine sustainability in lifelong learning in terms of the courses offered, strategies used, challenges faced, and the sustainable leadership approach applied in Pakistan. This qualitative study employs the phenomenology approach to explore the perspective of lifelong learning center managers and uses a purposive sampling technique to select respondents from eight renowned universities in Pakistan. Thus, eight respondents who possessed a minimum one year of experience managing lifelong learning centers were asked questions in semi-structured interviews. Subsequently, the content analysis method was used to extract themes and analyze data. Finally, practical recommendations on how to improve the process and quality of lifelong learning have been made using the results of this study.</p> Ayesha Mahmood, Tatheer Yawar Ali, Erum Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 IMPACT OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ON FIRM PERFORMANCE <p>Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) has grown as a topic of interest, especially in the last few years. With growing awareness and environmental challenges, consumers around the world have started demanding more and more organizations adopt practices that are more environmentally friendly. Firms around the world have now started seeing the benefits of implementing these Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and adopting them anyway. This research is based on finding out the impact of adopting Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices and how it impacts firm performance. Four measures of the GSCM have been taken; Green information systems, reverse logistics, green manufacturing, and eco-design. 201 responses have been recorded through questionnaires sent online to individuals who are associated with the supply chain department of any firm operating in Karachi. The impact of these measures was seen individually and their aggregate impact on the firm performance was calculated. With its main objective to find if the impact of the GSCM practices on firm performance is significant or not, the study aims to inspire and help more firm managers make the decision about whether or not they should adopt GSCM practices in their firm.</p> Erum Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS ENHANCING WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY <p>Woman empowerment is an important issue of the 21st century. Women are an important part of any society who contribute to the development process. Since the creation of Pakistan women's empowerment has been neglected. According to the constitution of Pakistan, education is the basic right of every female living in Pakistan but the actual situation is different (Khan, 2020). In many areas women are deprived of social development processes such as education, health, decision making in family matters and access to technology. They even don’t know what their right are and they don’t get equal opportunities of living respectful human life. Many plans and policies have been developed for women development but no one could be implemented. The National Policy 2002 aimed to ensure female participation in economic growth and decision making. Moreover, a bill ‘Criminal Law Act 2004’ against the honor killing of females was also approved by the Parliament of Pakistan (Bushra &amp; Wajiha 2013). Similarly, many laws have been formulated regarding women's empowerment but the issue of women's development is still there and needs to be focused on the well-being of women and ultimately the development and prosperity of society. The determinants of low woman empowerment are socio-cultural issues, economic issues, poverty, lack of awareness, and gender discrimination. The scope of this study is to investigate factors that increase women's empowerment. </p> Saadia Razzaq, Sheikh Tariq Mehmood Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 A REVIEW ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS ON LOCAL COMMUNITIES BY THE DEVELOPMENT OF BAHRIA TOWN KARACHI <p>Karachi is known as one of the largest and fastest growing cities of Pakistan having unconfirmed record of population of about 22 million with GDP of 15 percent, from which 25 percent of revenues are generated and 62 percent is cut down in income taxes. (Twen ty-one, 2016; Hasan, 2015). In past few years, many residential and commercial projects have been completed in Karachi, in order to facilitate the population of all income groups. This research aims to explore the challenges faced by the local communities by the development of most dominating agency “The Bahria Town” Karachi. This study also analyzes the impacts of those challenges on the lives of local communities and their daily activities, demographics, and ethnicity. The methodology of this research is based on secondary data including case studies, books, newspaper, magazines, and articles. The primary data is being collected with the help of interviews with the local communities mainly. After exploring all the facts and figures, through literature review and primary data, this research concluded that Bahria Town being the biggest real estate agency has been failed to full fill the requirements of local communities in the nearby surrounded villages, additionally, became the reason of displacing many villages and also has negatively affected the agriculture and natural ecosystems.</p> Azadi Memon, Urooj Fatima Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 HEALTH INFORMATION SHARING ON FACEBOOK: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON COVID-19 <p>Social media is the most crucial part of our daily lives. Today the internet and World Wide Web are being used to influence people around the globe. However, the information available on social media struggles to maintain its credibility because anyone may upload content. Currently, it has been observed that Facebook being the biggest social media platform plays a significant role in the dissemination of information about the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to investigate the information about COVID-19 on Pakistan's biggest page dedicated to COVID-19 known as Corona Recovered Warriors. The researcher conducted a qualitative and quantitative Facebook content analysis. The content was restricted to COVID-19 information available on the Corona Recovered Warriors Facebook page. The posts from June, September, and December were selected to analyze the change in themes of information over time. In Pakistan, in June, the highest number of daily COVID-19 positive cases are reported, September because of the ease in lockdown and the lowest number of COVID-19 daily cases, and then December when the graph of COVID-19 positive case again rises. A total of 28381 posts were analyzed in three months, and the focus of the posts was on Experience sharing (n=7934), Seeking or clarifying personal status (n=8419), Raising awareness on COVID-19 (n=2614), Support for patient and caregiver (n= 2597), and Product and service promotion (n=3341). A significant link between the number of posts on the Facebook page and the crucial and easy months related to COVID-19 positive cases has also been detected. COVID-19-positive patients and their relatives or family members share their health information widely with other Facebook users, also highlighting the need for collaboration between healthcare providers and media experts to design appropriate interventions for responding to pandemic diseases.</p> Fatima Kiran Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 TRANSPARENT AND EFFECTIVE PROCUREMENT IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNIVERSITIES OF KARACHI FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR <p>The federal and provincial governments set strict rules and regulations for procurement in public sector universities to ensure transparency and value for money to achieve sustainable development in Education Sector. The United Nations has developed a set of 17 goals called Sustainable Development Goals 2030 and Pakistan is the first country to adopt these goals through Parliament’s unanimous resolution. Ensuring transparent and effective procurement in public sector educational institutions especially in universities is actually fulfilment of the two goals of the SDGs, first one is Goal 4 Quality Education and Goal 16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. Because public universities are governed by the federal or provincial governments, they must adhere to Public Procurement Rules. There are three Public Sector Universities, out of which two are governed and managed by the provincial government of Sindh and one is by Federal government. Procurement is considered as best when goods or services are procured in a process which gave more value for money spent on procurement but in the case of public sector universities, there is a perception that procurement in public sector universities are not cost effective and fair. The objective of this research is to government’s efforts to ensure transparency and effective procurement in public sector universities for achieving the targets of quality education and building strong institutions. This paper has made an attempt to identify the issues and challenges being faced by the public sector universities in procurements due to rigid rules and regulations made for government sector procurement but enforced on universities also just because they are under the administrative control of the federal or provincial governments. In order to conduct an extensive research within limited allocated time, both primary as well as secondary research methods are used in this research.</p> Muhammad Abdul Majid Khan, Shameel Ahmed Zuberi, Aurangzeb Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Abdul Majid Khan, Shameel Ahmed Zuberi, Aurangzeb Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 EVOLUTION OF THE BUREAUCRACY IN SINDH: THE ROLE OF SDGS IN EMPOWERED LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KARACHI <p>Article 140 (A) of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan clearly provides the basis for the establishment of an empowered elected local government by covering all the domains of devolution of power i.e. political, administrative, and financial. However, ethnic, political, and federal interests constrained its practical implementation of it in Karachi, an economic hub of the country and the provincial capital of Sindh. Karachi is the one of most populated metropolitan cities in the world including suburbs that faced challenges in the absence of viable local government. Covid-19 hit globally in the year 2020, and has shaken the socio-economic conditions of the countries and more importantly their metropolitans. This research study is an attempt to investigate lacunas of Karachi’s LG System. Does the local government of Karachi was empowered, both administratively and financially, enough for coping with the Covid-19 challenges that city faced during the phase of a pandemic? Do the weaknesses and issues of metropolitan expose during the said time span, are due to ineffective local government of the city? Does the weaknesses and issues of metropolitan are due to the negligence of the responsibility by the local government of Karachi? Do the Constitutional provisions safeguard the empowerment of LG? Do the political and ethnic factors constrain the reformation of LG system is a desirable need of the city? Does the recently passed - Sindh Local Government (Amendment) Bill 2021, hinder the UN’s 2030 Agenda for the Sustainable Development goals by creating structural and procedural controversies and controversies over empowerment? The research methodology includes a literature review. Apart from it, a questionnaire survey conducted by academia and journalists, approximately fifty from each community will serve as a voice for resolving the appropriate LG system’s problems with adequate empowerment in the challenging circumstances.</p> Swaleha Razi Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Swaleha Razi Ullah Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PURCHASE DECISIONS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY ON FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINABLE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN PAKISTAN <p>The global COVID-19 pandemic has restricted the movement of people across the world and has necessitated consumers to approach their food purchase decisions with a resilient mindset. This study uses the qualitative approach to explore primary influences on the consumption of sustainable food products in Pakistan from the purchase-intention phase to the purchase-completion phase. This study also examines factors that prevent consumers from translating their purchase-intentions into actual purchases. In addition, this study investigates the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the purchase intention of consumers and the consumption of sustainable food products in Pakistan. The content analysis method has been used to extract themes from the data after interviewing 10 consumers of green food products. The findings of this study will help stakeholders such as marketers, suppliers and policy-makers understand factors that motivate consumers to purchase sustainable food products in Pakistan.</p> Bushra Mahmood, Ayesha Mahmood, Tatheer Yawar Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Bushra Mahmood, Ayesha Mahmood, Tatheer Yawar Ali Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION IN PAKISTAN <p>Since the 1980s, the world has been increasingly connected and integrated. The concept of distance has been revived by the efficiency of communication and transportation, transforming the world into a global community. Globalization's footprints are becoming increasingly visible with the passage of time. Aside from other aspects, ever-increasing globalization is altering women's life. Involvement in the work force is considered as an important indicator of women empowerment. The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of globalization on female labor force participation in Pakistan. Female labor force refers to all women who supply labor for the production of goods and services in a stated period. Women comprise nearly 50 percent of the population of Pakistan, therefore, their active economic participation is essential for the economic growth and development. Female labor force participation rate and the KOF Globalization Index (the Index measures the economic, social and political aspects of globalization) data of Pakistan are utilized to achieve the research objectives. Moreover, regression analysis is used for the purpose of data analysis. The study reveals the significance of globalization in improving the situation of women empowerment and gender equality in the country.</p> Haider Iqbal, Zaeema Asrar Mohiuddin Copyright (c) 2022 Haider Iqbal, Zaeema Asrar Mohiuddin Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 EMBEDDING FOUR INDICATORS OF RESILIENCE TO MAKE CITIES AND COMMUNITIES SUSTAINABLE IN PAKISTAN <p>The United Nations Agenda 2030 for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires a concrete approach for effective implementation of SDGs as these global goals provide a blueprint to achieve a prosperous, better, and more sustainable future. However, SDG-11 – sustainable cities and communities – holds an imperative place among all the seventeen goals as it targets social, economic, and ecological sustainability and development, and this can be achieved through building community resilience. Resilience is the capacity to prevent, mitigate, absorb, and adapt in pre and post-disaster or crises, and a resilient community – having all the said capacities and capabilities – can sustain any kind of uncertainty. The objective of this paper is to highlight the significance of resilience in making cities and communities sustainable and to identify the possible outcomes of embedding the four indicators of resilience – healthy and active community resources, elevated priority to lifeline functions, resilience measurement and risk management, and partnership and executive management – in the development framework and policy structure of Pakistan. The findings and results have been supported through past pieces of literature such as research papers, annual reports, project documents, journal articles, websites, policy frameworks, and other documents on SDGs, resilience building, community resilience, and the importance of resilience in achieving SDG-11. The findings reveal that integrating the four indicators of resilience can increase risk knowledge at the local level to make the public well-prepared, enhance connectedness and cohesion to make healthy community networks, ensure availability and fair distribution of community resources and lifeline functions, and create an appropriate governing structure for effective and expeditious execution of policies and strategies.</p> Rimshah Shahid, Bilal Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Rimshah Shahid, Bilal Ahmed Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 AN INVESTIGATION OF BANKS’ NON-PERFORMING LOANS – A STUDY OF MICROFINANCE BANKS FROM MICROECONOMIC AND MACROECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY & FINANCIAL INCLUSION <p>Banks’ failure and financial crises are consequences of non-performing loans, and it is of great importance when it comes to microfinance banking system because it is more than mere loan repayment problems. Rather, it is an important determining factor of their failure or survival in market. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of bank specific (micro-level factors) as well as macro-economic factors on NPLs to understand their impact and effect on microfinance banks. Microfinance banking sector has significant contribution in terms of financial inclusion in an economy. Sustainable Development Goal number 8 calls for expanding financial services to people (typically low-income) which encourages economic growth. This research employs published secondary data from 2011-2020 of micro-economic and macro-economic factors as independent variables and NPLs as dependent variable. The present study applies regression analysis to determine the explanatory power of the independent variables in explicating the NPLs. The findings of this empirical research contribute in guiding bankers to develop better understanding of their performance in terms of efficiency, riskiness, profitability and further it facilitates investors to take precision decisions.</p> Suad Sindhiya, Tooba Hashmi , Mahvish Khaskhely Copyright (c) 2022 Suad Sindhiya, Ms. Tooba Hashmi , Mahvish Khaskhely Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 QUALITY EDUCATION: EFFECT OF JIGSAW METHOD ON REVISED BLOOM TAXONOMY IN THE SUBJECT OF MATHEMATICS <p>The teaching of mathematics is used by several methods; one of them is the cooperative learning jigsaw method to improve the student's higher ordered thinking skills. The study intended to investigate that how the jigsaw method is effective on higher-order thinking skills in the subject of mathematics at the elementary level. The major objectives of the study were; to understand the result of the jigsaw method on students' analysis skills, to examine the effect of the jigsaw method on the assessment of students' abilities, to explore the outcome of the jigsaw method on the creation of students' skills. The hypothesis used that there is no significant difference between the mean score of the experimental group and control group on analyzing, evaluating, and creating skills of the students. The sample of the study consist of 60 elementary school science students of Grade VIII in the subject of mathematics of two groups, 30 in the control group and 30 in the experimental group. The study was experimental and a Pre-test-Posttest control group was used as the study design. Purposive sampling was used for the selection of the samples. Data were analyzed by using SPSS-22, T-test was used to compare student pre-test and post-test. The major results of the study were; the jigsaw method is more effective than the traditional method because the learning effect in a stimulating environment has an eternal influence on the learning process of students. In the classroom, students use the jigsaw method to stimulate their enthusiasm and actively participate in classroom teaching because the jigsaw method creates a positive learning environment in the classroom.</p> Sheikh Tariq Mehmood, Razzaq Ahmad , Kaleem Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Sheikh Tariq Mehmood, Razzaq Ahmad , Kaleem Ullah Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 PARENTAL INTERVENTION IN NURTURING RESILIENT SOCIETY IN PAKISTAN <p>The relationships between children and their parents that are warm and supporting are the most crucial elements in developing resilience and dealing with potential challenges. Child development research has developed and greatly advanced offering ideas and concepts ranging from evidence of when, where and how parents can shield their children from environmental stressors impacting their lives and growth.</p> <p>Childhood is idealized as a carefree time where children only cherish relationships with their parents. However, youth alone cannot offer guard against all emotional odds and traumas that many children have to face. Children are encountered by multi facet problems from settling in new classroom environments to maltreatment by classmates, domestic abuse or even severe consequences of behavioral rigidity. Thus along with the physical transformations children often are confronted with uncertain behavioral responses from their peers, friends and family that requires them to develop skills of resilience. Like many other responsibilities, developing resilience significantly lies with of parents as custodians of their mental and physical well-being.&nbsp;</p> <p>The research is being conducted in the scenario of Pakistan where culture places immense value in family cohesion and parental supervision. This research is an endeavor to lay out the role of young parents as an integral part in developing resilience during early years of childhood which will provide strong foundations for human prosperity and ability, indispensable for the development of healthy, adaptable and tolerant young minds. Moreover, early interventions will facilitate children to&nbsp;come out&nbsp;from challenging experiences with a positive perspective towards culture, social and religious differences, learn from failures, and become adaptive to changes.</p> Sheeba Zafar, Sameen Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500 ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC SCHOOL OF SINDH: PRACTICES, TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS <p>Large- scale assessment is used to evaluate overall education system. It emerged during 1980s as a tool to inform education system across the world. In Pakistan, large- scale assessment was initiated by National Education Assessment Center. In different provinces and areas, assessment centers were also established. Today, ASER, PEACe and SAT are the major large- scale assessment conducted in public sector. This research aimed to examine the large-scale assessment practices in public schools of Sindh, the rationale of large- scale assessment and its contribution to improve overall education. This research is situated in the qualitative paradigm in which the data was collected through document reviews and analysis as well as interviews. The findings confirm that, major three types of large- scale assessments have been reporting dismal situation of students’ achievement. The score generally ranges between 25 and 30 which is an alarming condition. Textbook based teaching, unawareness of teachers about developing standardized and high order assessments and unavailability of basic facilities are the core issues associated with students’ low scores. The consistent low score demands to reconceptualize the rationale of large- scale assessment and the focus may be shifted to promote formative assessment and prepare public sector teachers to conduct effective and meaningful assessments. This research also recommends that the policies regarding assessment already exist which need to be implemented in their true spirit.&nbsp;</p> Mushtaque Ahmed, Mudassir Shamsi Copyright (c) 2022 Mushtaque Ahmed, Mudassir Shamsi Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0500