How to Cite

Shah, N. A., Bilgrami , A. A., & Rauf, S. (2022). THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF COVID-19 ON PAKISTANI WOMEN: A SOCIO-ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE. Global Journal for Management and Administrative Sciences, 3(3), 101–121.


The impact of COVID-19 across the globe has been profound because emerging evidence on the impact of COVID-19 shows that women’s lives have been affected disproportionately and differently. Presently, the epidemic of COVID-19 has had a major impact on every sphere of human life. All aspects of human life (social, economic, political) were directly or indirectly affected by the outbreak of the novel Coronavirus. Women are greatly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 as compared to men. Women are half of the population of the world. They are involved in every sphere of life. A large number of women are working in the health, economy, security, hospitality, social protection, and education sectors all over the globe. Furthermore, the workload on women is higher than men in all fields (domestic and economic) of their lives. In COVID-19, women cannot fulfil their socioeconomic responsibilities, so the level of depression is increased in them. Due to COVID-19, the percentage of unemployed and depressed women has also increased worldwide in Pakistan. This research study aims to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on Pakistani women. Data is collected through the non-probability snowball and convenient sampling technique to achieve the target. A total of 60 women were interviewed from different segments of society for the collection of primary data. The clinical studies, international reports, working papers, and peer-reviewed articles are secondary data. This research highlights that COVID-19 has harmed women in all areas of their lives. Furthermore, results point out that working women are more likely to spend their incomes on their families than men. Therefore, in the present situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, women are fired from their jobs and livelihoods and facing vulnerable situations which created unbelievable depression, panic, and anxiety in them.


Alon, T., Doepke, M., Jane Olmstead-Rumsey, Y., & Tertilt, M. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality. Retrieved March 20, 2020, from

Anjum, U. (2020). Total number of active social media users in Pakistan as of 2020. Retrieved October 15, 2020, from

Asim, S. (2020). COVID-19 through the gender lens. Retrieved June 21, 2020, from

Bhuiyan, Sakib, N., Pakpour, A. H., Griffiths, M. D., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). COVID19-related suicides in Bangladesh due to lockdown and economic factors: Case study evidence. International Journal of Mental Health, 49(1), 34-42.

Boniol, M., McIsaac, M., Xu, L., Wuliji, T., Diallo, K., & Campbell, J. (2019). Gender equity in the health workforce: Analysis of 104 countries. Health Workforce Working Paper 1. Retrieved June 21, 2020, from

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, 112934.

CARE. (2020). Gender implications of COVID-19 outbreaks in development and humanitarian settings. Retrieved August 01, 2020, from

Chattu, V. K., & Yaya, S. (2020). Emerging infectious diseases and outbreaks: Implications for women’s reproductive health and rights in resource-poor settings. Reproductive Health, 17(1), 43.

Chew, N. W., Lee, G. K., Tan, B. Y., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N. J., Yeo, L. L., Ahmad, A., Khan, F. A., Shanmugam, G. N., & Sharma, A. K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 559-565.

Dsouza, D. D., Quadros, S., Hyderabadwala, Z. J., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Aggregated COVID-19 suicide incidences in India: Fear of COVID-19 infection is the prominent causative factor. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113145.

Facio, A. (2013). What is Patriarchy? Retrieved from on September 18, 2020.

Falah Gulzar. (2020). World Asia, Pakistan, 2020, Coronavirus: Young doctor commits suicide in Pakistan due to lack of protective measures. Retrieved from on August 18, 2020.

Falah Gulzar. (2020). World Asia, Pakistan, 2020, Coronavirus: Young doctor commits suicide in Pakistan due to lack of protective measures. Gulf News. Retrieved from

Frank, Andreas, Fatke, Bastian, Frank, Wolfgang, Förstl, Hans, Hölzle & Patricia. (2020). Depression, dependence and prices of the COVID-19-Crisis. Brain, Behav. Immunity. Retrieved from

/PMC7189841/ on June 12, 2020.

Hannah, E. Briggs; Thoai & D. Ngo. (2020). The health, economic, and social effect of COVID-19 and its response on gender and sex: a literature review, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

ILO. (2020). COVID-19 and the world of work: Impact and policy responses. Retrieved from

documents/briefingnote/wcms_738753.pdf on June 12, 2020.

Kaleem, M. F. (2020). Educational institutions to stay closed till July 15; board exams cancelled. Retrieved from on June 22, 2020.

Li, Z., Ge, J., Yang, M., Feng, J., Qiao, M., Jiang, R., Bi, J., Zhan, G., Xu, X., Wang, L., & Zhou, Q. (2020). Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav. Immun. Retrieved from on December 30, 2020.

Mamun, M.A., Misti, J.M & Griffiths, M.D. (2020a). Suicide of Bangladeshi medical students: risk factor trends based on Bangladeshi press reports. Asian J. Psychiat. 48.

Menéndez, C. (2015). Ebola crisis: The unequal impact on women and children’s health, Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved from on December 28, 2020.

Montemurro, N. (2020). The emotional impact of COVID-19: From medical staff to common people. Biological, psychological, and social sciences. Retrieved from on August 13, 2020.

Nkangu, M., Olatunde, O., & Yaya, S. (2017). The perspective of gender on the Ebola virus using a risk management and population health framework: A scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 6. Retrieved from

/10.1186/s40249-017-0346-7 on August 21, 2020.

OECD. (2020). Supporting people and companies to deal with the COVID-19 virus: Options for an immediate employment and social-policy response. OECD Publishing, Paris. Retrieved from

pm_7379_119_119686-962r78x4do.pdf on July 15, 2020.

OECD. (2020). Tackling violence and harassment in textiles, clothing, leather and footwear: Implications of the new ILO Convention No. 190: Background Note to the OECD Garment Forum 2020. OECD. Retrieved from https:// on September 23, 2020.

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Deputy Chairman Planning Commission Inaugurated the field operation of special survey to evening impact of COVID-19 on well-being of people. Retrieved from

/sites/default/files//press_releases/2020/press_release_on%20visit%20of%20DCPC%20to%20PBS_0.pdf on April 7, 2020.

Périvier, H. (2014). Men and women during the economic crisis: Employment trends in eight European countries. Revue de l’OFCE/Debates and policies, 133(2), 97-131. Retrieved from on March 22, 2020.

Qureshi, U. (2020, October 16). Women and girls must be at the center of Pakistan's COVID-19 recovery. Retrieved from


Rubery, J., & Rafferty, A. (2013). Women and recession revisited. Work, employment and society, 27(3), 414-432. Retrieved from

/0950017012460314 on April 22, 2020.

Sajid, I. (2020, October 8). Pakistan marks 15th anniversary of 2005 earthquake. Anadolu Agency. Retrieved from

text=Pakistan%20on%20Thursday%20marked%20the,87%2C000%20people%20in%20its%20northeast.&text=Around%20250%2C000%20farm%20animals%20perished,disaster%2C%20according%20to%20the%20agency on June 21, 2020.

Sakib, N., Mamun, M. A., Bhuiyan, A. I., Hossain, S., Al Mamun, F., & Hosen, I. (2020). Psychometric validation of the Bangla Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. I, 49(4), 1-12. Retrieved from

and_Rasch_Analysis on November 13, 2020.

Shereen, A. M., Suliman Khan, S., Kazmi, A., & Siddiqui, R. (2020). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24, 91-98. Retrieved from https://

transmission_and_characteristics_of_human_coronaviruses on September 22, 2020.

Tariq, F. (2020). Gender Impact of COVID-19 in Pakistan: Contextual Analysis and the Way Forward, International Foundation for Electoral Systems. Retrieved from https://www.gender_impact_of_covid19_in_pakistan_contextual_analysis on July 11, 2020.

Thakur, V., & Jain, A. (2020). COVID 2019-suicides: A global psychological pandemic. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 952-953. Retrieved from https://www. on June 14, 2020.

The Express Tribune. (2020, April 27). Pakistan's economic revival to take time. Retrieved from on December 26, 2020.

UN Women. (2020). United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. COVID-19 and ending violence against women and girls. Retrieved from

/library/publications/2020/issuebrief-covid-19-and-ending-violence-against-women-and-girls-en on September 22, 2020.

UNODC. (2020). Gender and pandemic protecting women in times of COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.pakistan/Advocacy_Brief_3_Gender_-COVID-19-Sindh.pdf on September 17, 2020.

Usher, K., Bhullar, N., Durkin, J., Gyamfi, N., & Jackson, D. (2020). Family violence and COVID-19: Increased vulnerability and reduced options for support. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 29(4), 549-552. Retrieved from on July 3, 2020.

Uzma Qureshi. (2020). Women and girls must be at the center of Pakistan's COVID-19 recovery. Retrieved from

/women-and-girls-must-be-center-pakistans-covid-19-recovery on November 11, 2020.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.

Wenham, C., J. Smith, & R. Morgan. (2020). COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak. Lancet Publishing Group. Retrieved from on October 16, 2020.

WHO. (2020). Coronavirus Age, Sex, Demographics (COVID-19)-Worldometer. Retrieved from on January 1, 2021.

WHO. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019, Situation Report-94. Retrieved from

-sitrep-94-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=b8304bf0_4 on January 21, 2021.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Nasreen Aslam Shah, Dr. Aliyah Ali Bilgrami , Dr.Samina Rauf