women empowerment
actors enhancing women empowerment
women in social development processes
economic issues
socio-cultural issues

How to Cite

Razzaq, S. ., & Mehmood, S. T. . (2022). AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FACTORS ENHANCING WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY. Global Journal for Management and Administrative Sciences, 3(1), 41–51. Retrieved from


Woman empowerment is an important issue of the 21st century. Women are an important part of any society who contribute to the development process. Since the creation of Pakistan women's empowerment has been neglected. According to the constitution of Pakistan, education is the basic right of every female living in Pakistan but the actual situation is different (Khan, 2020). In many areas women are deprived of social development processes such as education, health, decision making in family matters and access to technology. They even don’t know what their right are and they don’t get equal opportunities of living respectful human life. Many plans and policies have been developed for women development but no one could be implemented. The National Policy 2002 aimed to ensure female participation in economic growth and decision making. Moreover, a bill ‘Criminal Law Act 2004’ against the honor killing of females was also approved by the Parliament of Pakistan (Bushra & Wajiha 2013). Similarly, many laws have been formulated regarding women's empowerment but the issue of women's development is still there and needs to be focused on the well-being of women and ultimately the development and prosperity of society. The determinants of low woman empowerment are socio-cultural issues, economic issues, poverty, lack of awareness, and gender discrimination. The scope of this study is to investigate factors that increase women's empowerment. 



Akkermans, J., &Kubasch, S. (2017). Trending topics in careers: A review and future research agenda. Career Development International, 22(6), 586-627.

Akhter, N., & Akbar, R. A. (2016). Critical analysis of life of Pakistani women: Views of educated women. Journal of Elementary Education, 26(1), 111–121.

Asghar, A. (2018). Empowering women still a challenge in Pakistan. Pakistan & Gulf Economist, October, 4–6. /2018/10/29/empowering-women-still-a-challenge-in-Pakistan

Al-Qahtani, A., M., Elgzar, W., T., Ibrahim, A., and El Sayed, H., A., (2021), Women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi universities: A cross-sectional study, African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2021; 25 (1s): pages 60-68

DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2021/v25i1s.6

Bhargava, P. (2021) Role of education is a milestone of women empowerment International Journal of Research and Development (IJRD) Volume: 6 Issue: 6 June 2021

DOI: 10.36713/epra2016 ISSN: 2455-7838 pages: 377-380

Batool, S. A., & Batool, S. S. (2018). Impact of education on women's empowerment: Mediational role of income and self-esteem. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education (JRRE), 12(1), 33–51.

Bushra, A., & Wajiha, N., (2013), Assessing the determinants of women Empowerment in Pakistan: A Case of Two Colleges of Lahore, Pakistan Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. 23 No. 2, (115-139)

Butt, B. I., &Asad, A. Z. (2016). Social policy and women status in Pakistan: A situation analysis. Orient Research Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 47– 62

Bhasin, K. (1985): Women's education in development from welfare to empowerment convergence: 21 (4): 5-17

Haq, A.M., Akram, F., Ashiq, A., & Raza, S., (2019) The employment paradox to improve women’s empowerment in Pakistan, Cogent Social Sciences, 5:1, 1707005,

DOI: 10.1080/23311886.2019.1707005 Jejeebhoy, S.J. (2000): women's autonomy in rural India: It's dimensions, determinants

The influence of context: In Harriet P. & Sen, G: Women's empowerment and Demographic processes: Moving beyond caiso: New York: oxford university press.

Khokhar, A. J. (2018). Women academic leaders in higher education in Pakistan: Perspectives of female students enrolled in higher education degrees. Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies, 25(2), 59–76.

Khan, S., Haider, S. I., & Saadia. (2020). Women’s Education and Empowerment in Islamabad, Pakistan. Global Economics Review, V(I), 50-62. DOI:10.31703/ger.2020(V-I).05

Kabeer, N., 1999. Resources, agency achievements: reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Development and Change 30, 435–464.

Noor, S., Isa, F., M., Nor, L., M., (2021), Women Empowerment through Women Entrepreneurship: A comparison between women Entrepreneurship and fulltime housewife in Pakistan, Iranian Journal of Management Studies, Vol 14 issue 2 pages 347-363 Doi


Packianathan, N., Anushree, S. M., &Manjunatha, B. (2016). The role of higher education in empowering Indian women. International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences, 5(3), 135–141.

Sekar, M. & Subbura, A., (2014) Women Empowerment: Role of Education, International Journal in Management and Social Science Vol.2 Issue-12, pages 76-85, ISSN: 2321-1784

Sharma, A., (2021). Role of Education in Women Empowerment. BRICS JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 11(2), 62-66. Retrieved from

Samina Malik & Kathy Courtney (2011) Higher education and women’s empowerment in Pakistan, Gender and Education, 23:1, 29-45

Soti, S., C., & Sharma, A., (2021). Role of Education in Women Empowerment, BRICS Journal of Educational Research, Vol 11 Issue (2), 62-66.

Shetty, S. (1992): Development projects in Assessing. empowering: new Delhi society for participatory Research in Asia: Paper series: 3

Tandon, T., (2016), Women Empowerment: Perspectives and Views, International Journal of Indian Psychology, Volume 3, Issue 3, No. 8, DIP: 18.01.134/20160303, ISBN: 978-1-365-12176-0

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.